Scoliosis – a common disease of the musculoskeletal system. It is characterized by an arcuate curvature of the spine in a lateral plane with a turn of vertebrae around its axis. The danger of scoliosis is not only in cosmetic defects. In this disease, are clamped nervous fibers, there is a displacement internal organs, as well as the deterioration of respiratory functions.
The most dangerous periods in the development and progression of scoliosis are the stages of rapid growth: from 4 to 6 years of age and 10 to 14 years. It should be particularly attentive to the health of the child at the stage of puberty, which occurs in boys aged 11-14 and girls 10-13 years old. The risk of worsening scoliosis increases in cases where to the beginning of these periods, in a child already have radiographic evidence of first degree of scoliosis (10 degrees).
Scoliosis is not to be confused with impaired posture. Violation of posture can be corrected through normal exercise, learning the correct landing at the table and other similar events. Scoliosis requires special integrated systemic treatment of the patient.
Causes of spinal scoliosis
This scoliosis can be either congenital or acquired. Congenital scoliosis occurs only in a quarter of cases, and his reason is in the wrong formation of the spinal column during fetal development. Acquired scoliosis is usually occurs in children aged 5-16 years in the period of active growth of the spinal column.
The main causes of acquired scoliosis:
- Incorrect posture;
- The trauma of the spine, lower limbs or pelvis;
- Shortening one of the lower limbs;
- Diseases of kidneys and digestive organs;
- Radiculitis and herniated spine caused by osteochondrosis.
Causes of scoliosis with structural changes:
- Poliomyelitis, which causes changes of the bone structure;
- Marfan syndrome;
- Structural changes of the chest, for example, the absence of ribs or additional ribs;
- Deficiency of calcium in bone tissue caused by rickets or other diseases of the parathyroid glands;
- Tumors or injuries of the spinal column;
- Lesions of the spine infections such as syphilis or tuberculosis;
- Degenerative changes in the muscles of the back or neck.
Symptoms of scoliosis
Scoliosis is characterized by a complex of symptoms. Outwardly at this disease are observed lateral deviation of the spine, torso position changes in the position standing and lying down. Change the shape of the pelvis, chest and internal organs.
Depending on the stage of scoliosis symptoms manifest to a greater or lesser extent.
I degree Scoliosis – defined by the sloping pelvis, round-shouldered, uneven shoulder height, waist asymmetry. The angle of curvature of 10 degrees.
II degree Scoliosis – there is an asymmetry of contours neck and asymmetry waist becomes more pronounced. The curvature is noticeable regardless of the position of the body. The angle of curvature – from 10 to 20 degrees.
III degree Scoliosis – can be determined on the basis of scoliosis II degree, expressed torsion, weakened abdominal muscles, bulging anterior costal arches. Angle curving – 20-30 degrees.
IV degree Scoliosis – characterize deformed spine, strongly stretched muscles in the area of the curvature, the presence of the rib hump. Angle of curvature is 30 degrees.
In addition, the symptoms vary depending on the kind of scoliosis:
- Cervical-thoracic scoliosis – bent fourth or fifth vertebrae.
- Thoracic scoliosis is manifested as curvature at the level of the seventh to ninth vertebrae. There Is a violation of the respiratory function, deformed thorax.
- Lumbar-thoracic scoliosis – a curvature of 10-12 vertebrae. Observed dysfunction of breathing and circulation.
- For lumbar scoliosis corresponds curvature to the first and second lumbar vertebrae. Externally deformation are slight, but this type of scoliosis is characterized by the early development of painful sensations.
- S-shaped scoliosis – is characterized by the curvatures at the level of the eighth to the ninth thoracic and first and second lumbar vertebrae. This type of disease has a tendency to progression. Symptomatically manifested as pain syndrome. Violated function of blood circulation and respiration.
Treatment is prescribed in accordance with the age of the patient, the type of scoliosis and spinal deformity degree.
In children scoliosis I and II degrees is treated under certain rules: nutritious food, outdoor games, regular walks in the fresh air. The bed should be a rigid. A chair and a desk must be chosen in accordance with the growth. Parents should make sure that the child is sitting upright at the table, pulling legs to the floor. Light should be set on right.
It is thought that scoliosis ceases to evolve with the end of organism growth (up to 18 years). On the one hand, this is a positive fact. But on the other – to straighten the spine at this age it is almost impossible. In such cases, scoliosis treatment consists in a supportive and restorative procedures (physiotherapy, massages).
Special exercises strengthen the muscles of the back, abdomen and lower back, improve a posture, correct the deformation. Exercise therapy provides the most successful outcome in the early stages of scoliosis. Positive impact also has swimming, especially the style of “breaststroke”.
In most cases, scoliosis does not require surgery. However, severe pain or progressive deformity is an indication for surgical intervention.