Pain in the heart varied in intensity and character; from the feeling uncomfortable to the piercing, contractive, unbearable “dagger” pain. Can come from a certain area is locally (heart region), but can be across the thorax.
Pain behind the sternum may occur as when physical stress and at rest, may last from several minutes to several hours or even days, varying in intensity depending on the movement and body position.
Types of pain by origin:
- Anginal pain, the cause of which is coronary artery disease;
- Cardialgia arising from defects, inflammatory and congenital heart disease, autonomic disorders, diseases of the nervous, muscular systems of the body, the lungs, the gastrointestinal tract, hormonal disorders.
Causes of pain in the heart
Every year, the death rate from cardiovascular disease is growing rapidly. In most cases, problems with the heart and blood vessels are the result of poor lifestyle and bad habits. However, doctors are isolated and other causes of these diseases, which can be congenital, hereditary or even infectious nature.
Pain in the heart, which arose due to heart disease
- Anginal pain is the result of a pathological process caused by insufficiency of blood supply to the myocardium, and manifests itself clinical forms of coronary heart disease: the acute (angina, myocardial infarction) and chronic (cardiosklerosis).
- Acute, compressing, pressing chest pain at angina pectoris caused by narrowing of the lumen of the arteries of the heart. The severe shortage of blood supply to the myocardium, causes acute pain attack, due to physical or emotional strain. The pain of angina is accompanied by shortness of breath, may subside upon termination of physical effort, as well as after taking nitroglycerin sublingually (under the tongue).
- Intensive, prolonged pain, burning, in myocardial infarction are caused by acute myocardial ischemia, rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque with the formation of thrombus in the coronary vessels. The result of pathological ischemic is the emergence necrosis in the cardiac muscle, the number and depth of penetration of which in myocardial tissue determine the intensity of anginal pain and the severity of the patient’s general condition.
- Other causes pain at the heart disease: pericarditis, and myocarditis. Sharp, stabbing pain accompanied by fever and general malaise (a consequence of viral infection). Mitral valve prolapse, myocardial dystrophy, and very rare pathology – aortic dissection may also cause sudden and intense pain in the chest.
Pain in the heart, arising for other reasons
Cardialgia – pain in the heart, which can be stabbing, often short (lightning puncture) may to radiate to the left shoulder and arm, but never subside after taking nitroglycerin.
- Pulmonary thromboembolism – sudden, severe pain in the chest, accompanied by shortness of breath, fear of death, heartbeat, loss of consciousness, which arose due to occlusion thrombus of large blood vessels of the body – pulmonary artery.
- Neurological disorders – appear at the compression of the nerve trunks (radicular syndrome), degenerative disc disease and herniated disc (disorders of the peripheral nervous system). Left-sided intercostal neuralgia, shingles can also cause severe pain, aggravated by palpation in the intercostal spaces.
- Lung diseases – Pleurisy can cause severe, localized pain in the chest, aggravated by coughing, sneezing. Bronchial asthma, pneumothorax also cause a pain in the chest.
- Diseases of the gastrointestinal tract – a nagging chest pain occurring immediately after a meal, characteristic of ulcer in the stomach. Cardialgia, can be observed in esophagitis, peptic ulcer of the esophagus, esophageal spasm. Bloating of the stomach, intestines can also provoke nagging pain behind the sternum, and intense pain to the right of the sternum can be observed at the infringement of intestine.
- Rheumatic diseases – stitching, aching, constant pain in the chest, can be observed in rheumatic myocarditis and pericarditis (rheumatoid pancarditis).
- Hormonal disorders – cardialgia symptoms are most pronounced in menopause: discomfort (gravity) in the chest, burning, cutting, piercing pain that mimics angina rest (occurs at night), is connected, as a rule, with autonomic disorders. The attack is accompanied by sweating, increased irritability, emotionality, severe headaches, sensation of cardiac arrest, spasms in the throat. Often there is paroxysmal vertigo, fear of death. At the end of the attack – severe weakness, profuse sweating, polyuria.