Panic attack is called a sudden, inexplicable attack of fear, anxiety, accompanied by heart palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness and feeling of strong emotion. After the first attack of panic, such as while driving, shopping in a crowded store, or you are in an elevator, a person may develop a phobia related to the occupation, during which there was an attack.
Panic attacks: Causes
The exact cause of panic attack currently is not installed. The factors that are conducive to the emergence, include:
- Genetic predisposition (mental disease in close relatives);
- Improper education in childhood (inconsistency, excessive exactingness and criticality by parents);
- Staying during childhood in a hostile environment (eg, alcoholic parents, frequent quarrels in the family);
- Features of the functioning of the nervous system, temperament;
- Personality characteristics of the patient (suspiciousness, impressionability, impulsiveness, vulnerability, susceptibility to fixation on feelings);
- Stress, exposure to significant stress factors, both negative and positive (eg, death of a close relative or birth of a child);
- Chronic somatic disease, disability or recent past infectious disease, surgery;
- Border states (eg neurasthenia).
Symptoms of panic attacks in adults, adolescents and children
Seizures occur suddenly and can include:
- Heart palpitations;
- Hyperhidrosis (excessive sweating);
- Chills, muscle tremors;
- Asphyxia (suffocation);
- Pain radiating into the left side of the chest;
- Abdominal pain (stomach ache);
- Dizziness, nausea;
- Violations stool (diarrhea, constipation);
- Paresthesias (numbness, tingling in the limbs);
- Impairment of hearing and vision;
- Increased blood pressure;
- Labored breathing;
- Tingling and numbness in the hands;
- Fever, shivering;
- The feeling that is about to happen something unimaginably horrible;
- Insomnia (sleeplessness), trouble sleeping, nightmares;
- Fear of death.
Treatment of the panic attacks
In the absence of timely, adequate, comprehensive treatment of panic attacks can lead to chronic disorders or develop into more serious problems of the psyche. With the appropriate treatment of panic attacks can be cured, it is possible to significantly reduce or completely eliminate the symptoms of the disease, allowing the patient to regain control of mental activity and lead a full life.
As with regular and with individual cases of panic attacks professionally selected program of drug treatment and psychotherapy techniques are necessary and indispensable. In order to cope with the panic completely and finally, a person must exert maximum of own effort.
Cognitive – behavioral therapy is recognized as the most effective treatment of panic attacks, and aimed at the realization in a realistic light, correction of thought patterns and behavioral habits, that trigger a panic attack. During sessions in patient is generated and recorded in the subconscious the new model of convictions. As a result of treatment for the patient’s a panic attacks become less scary, fear of death loses its significance, the symptoms gradually disappear.
When panic attacks pharmacological agents are using for the relief of symptoms of an attack. Medicamentous preparations are used in severe cases, but they are not a panacea and does not fully eliminate the existing psychological problems.
For the treatment of panic attacks use the following groups of products:
- Tranquilizers – shows excellent therapeutic response is very fast (30 minutes to 1 hour). Qualitatively provide a reduction of vegetative manifestations of panic. However, this group of drugs are using, briefly, as they cause accustoming, and in case of failure after prolonged use exhibit severe withdrawal symptoms.
- Antidepressants do not have a stimulating effect on the nervous system. Result 2-3 weeks after the beginning of reception. The course of treatment – from 3 to 6 months. Drugs of this class should be taken regularly, not only upon the occurrence of a critical moment.
- B Vitamins have a strengthening effect on the nervous system.