One of the strongest pain syndrome is a renal colic – an attack of pain at acute ureteral obstruction. Pain develops as a result of the hydrostatic pressure increase in the renal pelvis, resulting in the extension of its capsule, rich in nerve endings. Being the most painful of all, it signals the that if you do not take steps, will begin destruction of kidney tissues.
The causes of renal colic
- The passage of stones on the ureter (urolithiasis);
- Obturation by a blood clot;
- Blockage by a clot composed of white blood cells, epithelial cells and bacteria (pyelonephritis) or cheesy masses (in renal tuberculosis);
- Torsion or inflection ureter at nephroptosis that is often found after a sharp weight loss in women after a rigid diet;
- Compression of the upper by ureter perirenal cyst or subcapsular hematoma;
- Squeezing the outside – a tumor from adjacent organs, enlarged lymph nodes (including metastases), abscess or adhesions.
There are risk factors for renal colic in women and men:
- Urolithiasis in relatives;
- At least once arose back pain;
- The use of small volumes of liquid daily;
- Urinary tract infections;
- Work in hot shops;
- Frequent high physical activity (work, sport);
- Conditions leading to chronic dehydration (e.g. syndrome malabsorption from bowel);
- Anatomical features of the urinary tract, due to which develops urine stasis and chronic inflammation of organs;
- Insufficient entering in the intestine of micronutrients molybdenum and silicon from food and water;
- Increasing function of the parathyroid glands.
Symptoms of renal colic
Renal colic – is the strongest kind of pain that can not to facilitate by changing of body position. In renal colic symptoms develop suddenly, before the man felt good. Provoke its development can bumpy ride, lifting weights, a blow to the lumbar region.
The clinical picture is dominated by pain syndrome: localized in the lumbar region, usually on one side; cramping, sharp, persistent; intensifies during urination; It radiates to the genitals, perineum, rectum, hip, but irradiation may vary.
In addition, the general state suffer: nausea, vomiting; abdominal distension; temperature increase; high blood pressure; false urge to defecate; in urine may be noticeable blood ( concrement damages integrity of the urinary tract); urine volume can be greatly reduced.
In some cases, severe pain can lead to a state of shock when a person loses consciousness (or in a semiconscious state), his skin becomes pale, cool and covered with sweat; significantly reduced blood pressure.
After renal colic man urinates copiously, in the urine is visible to the naked eye the blood. You can also see a stones in the urine.
Screening and Diagnosis
The survey is conducted in a short time, to quickly initiate treatment of renal colic.
The first task – to rule out other causes of “acute abdomen”. It appendicitis, ovarian apoplexy or ectopic pregnancy in women, intestinal pathology (especially in children), acute cholecystitis, pancreatitis, perforation of the ulcer stomach or duodenal ulcer.
The diagnosis is established on the basis of: complaints of the patient; urinalysis; biohichichesky blood test; Ultrasound, OAM; X-rays of the abdomen and excretory urography; cystoscopy, cystochromoscopy, retrograde ureteropyelography.
Complications of renal colic
- Urinary retention;
- Pyonephrosis – pus-filled kidney;
- Hydronephrosis – a disease in which the kidneys are dilated cavity filled with urine;
- Obstructive pyelonephritis.